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15-minute city: analytical metrics

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“How to bring the city closer to people? Using Spatial Network Analysis to create a 15-minute City”.

1/ Event presentation

The European Transport Conference (ETC) is held annually, inviting different actors from the transport sector such as researchers, policy makers and professionals who work at the European, national, regional and local level.

The 49th annual ETC conference was held between 13th September  and 15th September. Because of COVID-19 restrictions, the conference was held online.

The key conference themes included:

  • COVID-19 and its consequences
  • The Climate Emergency
  • Inclusion and Diversity

2/ Topic presented

Sara Nalaskowska wrote a paper on the topic “How to bring the city closer to people? Using Spatial Network Analysis to create a 15-minute City”. It was presented as part of the “Data and Inclusive Mobility” session held by the Young Researchers’ and Practitioners’ Forum. The paper focuses on using spatial network analysis combined with point of interest data (POIs) as a supporting tool to design accessible and diverse urban areas in the spirit of the 15-minute city.

In her paper, Sara introduces two new analytical metrics: land use proximity and functional completeness, addressing the deficiency in quantitative tools that can support evidence-based planning of 15-minute cities and similar. The motivation behind the topic was the need for a paradigm shift in transport planning from mobility to accessibility, necessary to tackle climate emergency and improve quality of urban life. The metrics were presented on the example of a neighbourhood in Toruń, Poland.

Figure 1 : Location of Toruń in Poland

Figure 2 : Location of the study area in Toru

3/ 15-minute city – novel analytical tools

15-minute city concept

The popular concept of a 15-minute city proclaimed by Carlos Moreno describes an urban area where all essential services are accessible within a 15-minute walking or cycling distance, following the observation that quality of urban life is inversely proportional to the amount of time invested in transportation (Moreno et al., 2021). The transport modes and time may be modified to fit a specific location (as long as they don’t include private cars), matching the more general idea of chrono-urbanism, which focuses on providing a wide offer of urban services within a specific temporal distance.

Cities across the world have started their own chrono-urbanism plans:

While there are several spatial metrics that may support the planning of accessible and diverse cities, there was a lack of a measure that answers the key question:
Are the key urban amenities accessible within a given distance from each location?


Figure 3: Functional completeness measurement for a single location using sample 10 categories

Land use proximity and functional completeness proposed by Sara address this issue to help cities and designers make informed decisions about land use and spatial configuration.

What is land use proximity ?

Land use proximity is a binary metric showing whether a service of a specific category is accessible within a specified temporal distance. The coloured segments in Animation 1 indicate all areas which have a specific amenity available within a 5-minute walking distance.

Animation 1: Land use proximity within the 5-minute walking catchment

What is functional completeness?

Functional completeness is based on land use proximity and indicates the ratio of key amenities available within a specific catchment, showing how many of the key urban amenities are accessible within a given distance. Animation 2 shows the functional completeness for the study area represented in a colour gradient, where the coolest tones represent the areas where least of the key amenities are within a specific catchment and the warmest tones indicate the locations from which all land uses are within the given catchment. Since the metric is binary, multiple instances of a single category do not affect the results, which makes functional completeness a measure of both proximity and diversity.

The land use categories can be modified depending on the cultural and socio-economic context and may cover either the most popular travel destinations or the services that are critical to the healthy functioning of the area in question.

Animation 2: Functional completeness within 5-, 10- and 15-minute walking catchment

How were these metrics generated ?

Both land use proximity and functional completeness require two sets of data: a spatial network and land use data, which can be represented by Points of Interest (POIs) and polygons. The tools were developed using a spatially and historically diverse area in Toruń, Poland, using walking as the transport mode due to its unique character as the most natural transport mode, an element of other activities and most universal form of physical activity.

A detailed pedestrian network of 231 km was manually digitized for the study area and a 1,200 m buffer corresponding to a distance walked in 15 minutes at a 4.8 km/h speed. Additionally, OpenStreetMap land use data, supplemented manually was used. 20 large land use categories were defined based on the most common travel destinations in the area.

Animation 3: Pedestrian network and land use data

Figure 4 : An example of the ‘Education – secondary’ land use category within the study area – a high school

Figure 5 : An example of the ‘Education – other’ land use category within the buffer area – a children’s art centre

Figure 6 : An example of the ‘Retail – general, food’ land use category within the study area –a marketplace

Figure 7 : An example of the ‘F&B – café, bar’ land use category within the study area – a bar

Figure 8 : An example of the ‘Healthcare’ land use category within the study area – a clinic

Figure 9 : An example of the ‘Sport’ land use category within the study area – a basketball court

Land use proximity was generated using 3 catchments (5-min, 10-min and 15-minute walk) and 20 categories. Next, it was used to calculate functional completeness to illustrate the ratio of how many of the common travel destinations can be reached within a specific temporal distance.

Why use land use proximity and functional completeness ?

Land use proximity and functional completeness provide vital evidence for city planning, highlighting the missing land uses and areas with low accessibility.

The two metrics can be used to test alternative improvement solutions, using two approaches:

  • land use approach – by adding the missing amenities of selected categories and
  • network approach by improving the overall spatial accessibility in the area, for example by adding new paths or pedestrianization so that a street can be crossed in any location.


Figure 10: Example of land use intervention and its effects on land use accessibility

An example of the land use approach is shown in Figure 10. First, the areas in which there was room for improvement of selected categories were identified. Then, new education (other), leisure and clothing retail amenities were added. Both land use proximity (Figure 10) and functional completeness (Figure 11) were improved.

Figure 11: Example of land use intervention impact on functional completeness

Network approach was shown using a hypothetical example of converting the key barrier to the north-south pedestrian movement into a traffic calmed street with pedestrian priority. The barrier is the main east-west axis, a 4-lane Broniewskiego street with a tram line in the central reservation, high traffic and sparsely distributed pedestrian crossings.

Figure 12: Example of network intervention

The hypothetical changes were coded in the network, showing Broniewskiego street before interventions as two sidewalk centrelines connected only in the designated locations, while the improved street with pedestrian priority as a single road centreline, enabling free movement flow between the north and south, as shown in Figure 12.


Figure 13: Example of network intervention impact on functional completeness

The proposed changes led to significant improvement of functional completeness, visible in Figure 13, indicating that many more of the key land uses were available in a shorter distance. While land use approach enables instant improvement of specific land use proximities, the network approach remains more stable as the land uses inevitably change in time.

Conclusion

Cities around the world are now taking action to create vivid, mixed, and environmentally friendly spaces by implementing policies and design guidelines. To achieve that we need to radically change our approach to building cities.

As presented, land use proximity and functional completeness tools can directly be applied to planning processes and used as scientific evidence to support the creation of diverse and accessible 15-minute cities.

Finally, these tools can assist planners and policy makers in creating diverse and accessible cities reducing excess travel. This can support the critical shift from car-centric cities to healthy, resilient and liveable spaces for people.


Sara joined the Wedderburn Transport Planning team as a Transport Planner. She works on transport analysis, transport system design, GIS and spatial planning.  She specializes in 3D spatial network analysis and parametric modelling.

Sara has broad experience in fields of transport, architecture and civil engineering. She has previously worked in the public sector which included a range of transport and master planning projects for urban mixed-use sites as well as developing movement planning tools. Her main research interests include urban mobility, active travel, network configuration and the complexity of urban systems.

Sara has completed her Master thesis analysing the correlation between the detailed pedestrian path configuration, land use characteristics and the pedestrian traffic in a historical district of Bydgoskie Przedmieście in Toruń.


A new step in planning walking and cycling infrastructure in China

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New Pedestrian and Bicycle Transport Planning Standards

With effect from 1st October 2021, China is introducing the new Pedestrian and Bicycle Transport System Planning Standards (GB/T51439-2021 城市步行和自行车交通系统规划标准). This regulation is the first to set out common standards for pedestrian transport planning on a national level.

What is the purpose of the national standards?

Against the backdrop of policies evolving from a purely car-centric approach in cities to planning for transport-oriented development, the national standards represent a major step in planning for walking and cycling infrastructure.
The Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning Standard’s code is GB/T, which means that it is a recommended standard. Recommended standards are more flexible and adaptable, which make them easier to implement on a large scale.

Background: national standards

There are eleven categories of national standards linked to the process of drafting and enacting them. For the purpose of this article, understanding the following three categories is key :

GB (国标 – Guo Biao in Chinese) designates mandatory standards where parties can be held responsible if the standard is not followed.
GB/T (推荐性国家标准 – Tuijianxing Guojia Biaozhun in Chinese) are recommended standards where parties can decide whether or not to use this standard.
GB/Z (国家标准化指导性技术文件 Guojia Biaozhunhua Zhidaoxing Jishu Wenjian) are national standardisation technical guidance documents. These documents are used as a guide for fields where technical aspects are still under development.

Until now, there has not been a common set of standards for pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure. Several cities such Shanghai and Chengdu published their own Street Design Guidelines. However, these may only be used as reference materials and there is no mandatory requirement for parties to follow these guidelines.
The national standards provide a common ground for all cities in China. Those cities that did not have local standards for pedestrian planning can now apply the national standards. It may also encourage local authorities to create local standards adapted to their context that will prevail over the national standards.

What are the key changes in the new standards?

The greatest change in the new standards stems from the creation of transport zones. These are defined based on the density of people flows, function and positioning, street network conditions, and boundary elements such as topography, rivers or railways. Each city can define its own zones according to local conditions.

Zone I: Important Transport Zone, defined by (but not restricted to):
• Areas where walking and biking activities are dense
• Zones where there is a presence of core functions.
• Places where there are a concentration of citizen activities and there are public facilities
• Zones near a transport hub or station
• Zones where the street network is dense enough to allow a continuous and accessible pedestrian or bike network.

Zone II: Common Transport Zone, located outside the Zone I

Special zones are referred to regarding footway widths: railway stations, shopping malls, hospitals and schools

This document can be now used as a planning lever in transport schemes, with responses adapted to context. Moreover, the standards are flexible enough so that transport zones can be implemented into local context. Previously, planning standards did not take into account the surrounding environment, which led to the creation of large and high-speed arteries with the same characteristics regardless if they were in a high density area or not (see our article Pedestrian Transport Planning for TODs in Urban China ). The adoption of these standards means that pedestrian planning tools will play a greater role in the transport planning process. For example, distance between crossings for pedestrians should be inferior or equal to 200m in zone I against 300m in Zone II.

How will the standards affect individual developments, masterplans and regeneration schemes?

The standard provides a methodology to promote pedestrian and bicycle transport planning in individual projects. Planning tools, standards and calculations are provided, which allow for the definition of different transport zones and the application of differentiated and more context-specific design solutions.

For individual projects, this means that pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure and its integration with surrounding areas can be assessed, benchmarked and optimised according to the zone in which it is located. Therefore, it gives professionals in the design, construction and property sectors additional tools to develop people-oriented cities and reduce the legacy impacts of car-centric planning.

At Wedderburn Transport Planning we focus on transport planning and people movement analysis. We analyse the spatial structure of neighbourhoods and visualise local movement patterns using Spatial Network Analysis tools. This evidence-based approach to urban planning provides architects and planners with quantitative measures to benchmark urban layouts against existing neighbourhoods. We undertake pedestrian movement analysis and forecasting for masterplans, interchange and retail environments. We also use flow analysis and micro-simulation to evaluate the safety and comfort of proposed designs.

There are signs that the pedestrian environment in Chinese cities is about to change. It is time to put our tools to good use!

Pedestrian transport planning for TODs in China

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The construction of new metro lines continues at a fast pace in China, but transit stops in Chinese cities often suffer from poor pedestrian accessibility. With an ageing population and fast-growing cities, station accessibility is key to unlock the full potential of public transport and promote sustainability.

In this article for Urban China magazine, Georgies Srour and Martin Wedderburn seek to explain the reasons behind this phenomenon. After analysing the spatial, policy-related and economic challenges transit-oriented developments are facing in China, we propose solutions adapted to the Chinese context.

English version
Chinese version

New logo, same philosophy: Transport planning at a human scale

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We are proud to present our new Chinese corporate logo. Our distinctive walking legs logo has morphed into the ‘Ren’ character. This simple two-stroke character means ‘person’ and thus fully embodies our philosophy of ‘transport planning at a human scale’. We are already applying this philosophy to several high profile retail and mixed use masterplans in major Chinese cities.

Through our cooperation with the Oval Partnership, we are able to offer our transport planning services throughout China branded as Beijing Wedderburn Transport Planning Consulting.

Please contact georgies@wedderburntransportplanning.com for more information.

我们很高兴跟大家分享我们公司中国区的新标志。之前的‘行人’标志变形为‘人’字,新标志的设计意义在于人字跟我们的以人为本的交通设计理念完全符合。而且,这个理念已经在中国很多商业和混合用地开发项目开始设施了。

通过我们跟欧华尔顾问有限公司的合作,我们以北京威德奔交通规划咨询的名称开始提供了交通咨询服务。

如果想咨询更多可以联系 :
北京办公室联系人 – 楚杰士 (Georgies) georgies@wedderburntransportplanning.com

Managing micromobility

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Micromobility is an umbrella term that refers to the growing number of small, often electric powered vehicles such as e-scooters, e-bikes, self-balancing devices and e-skateboards that we are increasingly seeing on our streets. Their wider introduction affects all public and private landowners because micromobility vehicles may be used and/or parked on private land. These vehicles present opportunities and risks for landowners, which can be navigated with some forward planning.

In this article for DAC Beachcroft, Martin Wedderburn, shares his views on the opportunities and risks for landowners and developers presented by this evolving form of transport.

See the full article here.